Solar Active House

Solar Active House

Architect
Reinberg ZT GmbH
Location
Kraig, Austria
Project Year
2009
Category
Housing

Solar Active House

Reinberg ZT GmbH as Architects

The concept of this new type of building focuses first - similar to the 'Passivehouse' - to very well insulation (optimised thermal envelope). Beyond this, the 'Solar Active House' concept enables, through the optimised form of the building, an ideal gain of solar energy. The total south oriented surfaces can be used for gaining solar energy: for passive solar gain (the vertical sun windows and the windows in the pitched roof area) as well as through thermal colletors, which are integrated in the roof area and through photo-voltaic for electric generation. Whereas each of this solar strategies is functionally optimised in it's architectonical positioning: The sun windows turn the whole building into a collector and the daylight creates the highest living quality; the thermal collectors are integrated in the building and the photo-voltaic elements are 'flying' above the south windows, so that they get best ventilation. This ventilation effectuates higher earnings and the PV-elements at the same time hold off summer sunlight from the south glazing. It fulfills thus a double¬function. The air ventilation of the building can be effected either through a controlled ventilation (with heat recovery) or alternatively through automatical window openers. In the prototype building both options are achieved for test operation. The window ventilation is computer controlled: the windows are only opening according to the demand for oxygen or if the air becomes too humid. With this strategy the ventilation can be reduced to the effective demand. The architecture has been developed out of these fundamental considerations about energy and comfort. In the best standard, the house is energetically selfsufficient. The critical time of cold winterdays without sun can be coped through the heat pump by using surplus solar energy which is stored into the earth on sunny days. Thermal solar collectors deliver the warm water and are integrated into the heating system. If there is low solar radiation, the solar collectors are used over the available heat pump and the earnings so can be augmented considerably. Through the generous south glazing the building is opening to a very attractive landscape. The living space extends over two floors for a specially high living quality. The building can be built in different standards concerning the structural engineering as well as the solar utilization. The solar active house building type is offered by an Austrian company for prefabricated houses.


Energy Concept The high heat insulation and the high quality glazing minimize together with the heat recovery installation and the controlled ventilation the heat losses. The low demand of thermal heat is equivalent to the requirements to a passive house. The glazing of the south facade is using the passive solar advantages. The low requirement of resi¬dual heat is covered by thermal solar collectors which are integrated in the roof coverage (24,5 m2), with a solar accumulator (in the engineering room and in the ground floor) and with a solar heating over heat pump (com¬pany Sonnenkraft). For the individual heat-regulation there are scheduled heating elements in subzones of the walls, or in the floor. As protection against overheating the windows in the south are shaded with immovable sunblinds which are at the same time photovoltaic panels (37 m²). The windows in the east and west have external jalousies.


Construction The prototype building was implemented in a wooden pillar construction, which is filled out with chipped paper. Inside the construction is plastered with loam, outside it is boarded with larch planking. The windows are pivoting outwards to allow an effec¬tive and rainprotected aeration. The flat roof is realised as a greened roof. All the selected construction materials are with high building-biological value.


The construction of the building is based on ferroconcrete for the base, boardplywood for the other carrying constructions. The surfaces of the building are covered with the materials wood, glass and Eternit (as roof coverage). In the interior zone natural materials are used (Wood and loam rendering). For all constructions materials with high building-biological value are selected.

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