A continuous museum
The museum as a liminal condition between landscape and the city. We propose a linear and horizontal museum, conceived from inside out. Organizing the exhibition space on one floor. We propose a project that despite having two separate museums, imagine one as an extension of the other. The buildings construct the boundary between the park and the city, creating a continuous exposition space, a grid ordering the continuity between interior and exterior spaces. The grid defines all identical rooms, where the human dimension relates to the scale of the landscape; rooms delimit an intimate space, where one enters into symbiosis with the artworks. The grid also draws the open space and public space organization. The museum rooms grid becomes an apparently isotropic multidirectional space, able to allow a great flexibility. The grid system can be divided and opened all the time, according to the exhibition requirements.
Somewhere the sequence of rooms, within the regular grid, is interrupted by open air patios and other open empty rooms with water surfaces and rest areas. These spaces become real breaks along the exhibition path, bringing landscape and natural light inside the museum, for example in the hall the patio brings light in the basements. Both museums are strictly related to the boulevard and the green area. This connection takes place with a inner covered walk that crosses the commercial areas, define the entries and organize people flows through the exposition spaces. The porch, overlooking the existing garden, outlines the entire building. It is the outer extension of the main foyer: a transitional space establishing a relationship between the exterior and the interior, connecting the main museum spaces. It is meant to be opened to the city for special occasions in order to permit public events. The Dòzsa Gyorgy boulevard it’s conceived as an extension of the museum, where the street becomes an exposition space.
The grid, is defined by two systems of mutually perpendicular walls. Simple geometric shapes are cut into the walls, each museums is characterized by a system of different walls cut. In the photography museum walls are cutted in the corners in order to create system of diagonal crossings which consent large empty surfaces where to hang photos to. . In the architecture museum instead the cuts are places in the centre of the walls. This in order to ensure a prospective system that guarantees a continuous vision of the exposition gallery, and the stands for model and drawings can be placed in the centre of the room. Through the incisions in the walls, the room space expands, revealing the apparently endless dimension of the museum. Some of the museum activities are placed in two high buildings that are meant as landmarks that underlines the entrance to the parc.
We use a primary geometry, the grid, as a source of variability. A geometry that we alter by creating relationships with things which are less visible. The artistic and communicative phenomena use the everyday communication language, such as words, sounds or images, to produce messages which have, or to which is attributed, aesthetic or artistic value. Spaces which will accommodate these phenomena must conform to certain compositional features, which can best deliver the content meant to be conveyed. The first degree of interaction takes place within the exhibition space, which turns into the main container, thus becoming a key subject for the museum design development and the related exhibition paths. We carried out a “fragmentation” process through the use and repetition of modular spaces; their combination creates a “space within the space”, consenting visitors to lose the perception of a coercing container space.
Our main purpose is to put the visitor in the conditions to use freely all the available space, without being forced within the classical linear paths, which often leads to an indistinct and dreary passage of the exhibition areas, not connected at all to individual perception. Flows must turn into an instrument of knowledge, and the actions performed by visitors must collaborate to enrich the content. In parallel, according to the exhibition requirements, the regular grid allows a flexible subdivision of the space into rooms and/or galleries. The container merges with the shown object and at the same moment it is crossed, moved or opened to gain access to the content. The exhibition rooms are illuminated by roof skylights; natural light is controlled through shading systems to avoid direct light hitting the artworks. The natural light combined with the structural system defines a spatial matrix that acts on the continuous space defined through its abstraction. The 25 rooms for each museum, 8 by 8 meters wide, are articulated into a system: each pair of rooms forms a section that can accommodate different exhibition themes.
The new buildings intends to create a strong relationship with the local community creating various relational spaces that are the real core of the museum complex, a system articulated around the park and along Dòzsa Gyorgy ùt, The museums are gates for the existing parks to obtain this we worked with two very similar buildings each characterized by a specific facade, defined by two different colors: red and blue. The architecture museum is drawn with simple geometrical shapes to symbolize the essence of architecture, form. The architecture museum refers very often to geometry, these simple shapes, triangles squares and circles combine together in a sequence that from the outside leads you to the inside. Cuts overlapping, recalls the idea that architecture is generated by the multiple relations between geometrical figures, which produce guided mutations from a mathematical rule. The photography museum needs natural light and transparency, for this reason we used glass, in order to translate the need to create a direct connection between the represented world, the museum, and the reality around, a physical and visual continuity between the artwork and the object that it is trying to represent.
The Foyer for both museums is planned as a space connecting all accesses and arrivals from the exhibition areas and the service areas; along this space we placed the bar, the conference room and seminar room, the foyer is organized on 2 levels, ground floor and basement. The exhibition space The exhibition space consists of 25 rooms: each single room defines the smallest display unit, two rooms together define a gallery. The natural light coming from the roof is filtered through an adjustable brise-soleil screen, allowing indirect light on the artworks and a control of natural light as the main source of interior lighting. The exhibition rooms are supposed to have different heights, which varies changing the height of the skylights horizontal closure.
There are different ways to use the exhibition space:
- To access from the porch-foyer to three independent galleries.
- To access from the foyer to a continuous path encompassing all the rooms, a continuum exhibition space.
The courtyards system allows also the natural ventilation and illumination of all these areas located in the basement.
Conservation and storage space
All the storage area are located in the basement. Access is guaranteed from the opposite corners of the square and a direct one to the exposition area, in this way we avoid overlapping the flows of visitors and objects to be stored. The storage area is underground so in the future it may be connected to the underground parking under the square.
Materials and technology
The two museums are realized in concrete colored with glass aggregate, color defines the museum typology and ensures its recognisability. In the museum we have chosen the earth-red colour to simbolise the connection of architecture with the material it’s made of while for the photography one we used blue to symbolize the immateriality of photography, art form that interpretate reality and redefines reality.
The structural design is part of the founding concept of the grid on which project is based. This provides an absolutely regular distribution of structural elements with the obvious advantage of their maximum efficiency and standardization. Moreover the choice of a horizontal one floor building is very safe in terms of seismic behaviour. The beams on the ceiling of ground floor will hold directly and continuously the weight of squared hollow cases on the roof where skylights are inserted.
General sustainability concepts
water storage and reuse
Rainwater collected from the roofs as well as from the outside paved surfaces will be collected both locally and in the common reservoir of the central pools. The water stored locally, below the inner gardens, will be filtered, treated to potable standard and stoked in a specific storage to supply basins, to be reused. Water from the central pools will serve the geothermal installation.
passive solar energy
Solar energy will be captured by photovoltaic cells which lay on solar shades on the roof. These photovoltaic devices are South oriented and distributed in a way to minimize the loss of efficiency avoiding as much as possible shadows of structures and towers. Solar hot water panels will be integrated inside the concrete slabs of towers’ roofs and their South oriented elevations, making use of the thermic inertial mass of concrete structures.
direct use of geothermal resource
The geothermal reservoirs of hot water, which is present in the area, will be used as a clean and renewable energy source. From the rainwater storage pools, cool water will be piped by a mechanical system into the earth and naturally heated by the underground stream of hot water. A heat exchanger and control units will deliver the heat directly for its intended use (e.g. floor radiant panels heating).
integrated sun shading
To protect art objects and photographic images on show inside the exhibition rooms from direct sun radiations and to avoid passive heat gain during warm summers, photovoltaic modules will be installed on the roofs and will act like brise soleil. Moreover the concrete structure geometry integrated into the architectural concept of the buildings provides extended shadowed zones to the exhibition rooms underneath. The size of the photovoltaic system will be for both buildings around 200 kW.
The same brise soleil elements will have a third function since their section is designed to provide reflection and diffusion of natural light, without the sun rays being able to get directly into the exhibition spaces. Lighting solution for the main spaces, adjustable lighting in order to minimize lighting consumption it will be adopted combined with a widely focused lighting systems to provide correct lighting levels where and when needed. Generally, direct artificial lighting will be used, since more adequate and efficient, while indirect lighting will provide only scenery effects where needed. Both general and focused artificial lighting will be realized with LED technology, which guarantees long life, low consumption and low electric load.
heat recovery and heating strategies
Air handling units will generally be equipped with high efficiency (over 70%) cross flow heat recovery. Enthalpy recovery (a rotary air-to-air wheel that recover humidity from outlet air) will be evaluated with simulation considering higher recovery efficiency but higher fan consumption due to higher static pressure. Number of persons occupying the exhibition rooms can rapidly vary, so air supply must be provided with a temperature, CO2 and humidity detection system in order to guarantee the adequate environmental condition and to regulate air volumes. Detectors will be placed in extraction ducts; registered conditions will determine suitable modifications in AHU air flow, temperature and humidity.