Brasilia is the capital city of Brasil. It was conceived as a modern and model city. The main idea was to move the capital from Rio de Janeiro to a more central location. Building it was part of president Juscelino Kubitschek "fifty years of prosperity in five years" plan.
For its design, a contest was held and Lúcio Costa won becoming the main urban planner in 1957. Oscar Niemeyer, a close friend of his, was designated the chief architect of most public buildings and Roberto Burle Marx was the landscape designer. Brasília was built in the speedy lapse of 41 months, from 1956 to April 21, 1960, when it officially gained the status of capital city of Brasil.
The city plan was established on the Pilot Plan which was structured on two intersecting axis: The Vial axis consists of the South and North wings and the central part, where the wings connect with the road network of the Pilot Plan. The wings are areas basically composed of super residential blocks, commercial blocks and between them there are blocks of leisure and entertainment -where schools and churches were placed-.
The Monumental Axis is composed, to the east, of the Esplanade of Ministries and the Three Powers Square, on the east; on the center, the road network, Embassy Sector, Banking Sector, Entertainment Sector and Hotel Sector; and to the west, the TV tower, Sports Sector (now called Ayrton Senna Sports Complex, where the Mane Garrincha is) and Buriti Square.
But the most recognizable features of Brasília are, for sure, Oscar Niemeyer buildings.
The president residence is the Alvorada Palace, while the office building of the executive is the Palace of Planalto. Other landmark is the Congress building with its twin towers, but also the transparent Cathedral, as well as the Supreme Tribunal of Justice and the Ministry of Foreign Affaires represent one of the most interesting creations by Niemeyer.