For an architect who occupies a Z-dimension all her own, Zaha Hadid, Hon. FAIA, has seldom constructed high along that Z axis. She has built many multi-level and midrise institutional buildings, but very few towers. That is about to change with the on One Thousand Museum, a 62-storey, 83-unit, super-luxury condominium tower on Biscayne Boulevard in Miami, opposite Museum Park, with views across Biscayne Bay to Miami Beach.
The project is no less Zaha at this unprecedented scale. A concrete exoskeleton structures the perimeter of the tower in a web of flowing lines that integrates lateral bracing within the lines of structural support. Columnar lines near the base splay out to meet at the corners, forming a rigid tube highly resistant to Miami’s demanding wind loads.
With structure at the perimeter, the interior floor plates are almost column free, allowing maximum variation in floor plans. The bottom two-thirds of the tower has two units per floor, while the upper third boasts units that occupy the entire floor. The moving, curving lines of the exoskeleton mean that each succeeding floor plan is slightly different from the last. On the lower floors, terraces occupy the corners; on the upper floors, the terraces are tucked in from the edges.
A duplex penthouse occupies the last two residential floors. The final floor features an aquatic center, leisure area, and event space. There is commercial space at the base, along with several stories of parking. At grade, the tower is ringed by pools and gardens. Zaha Hadid Architects project director Chris Lepine says that the structure—which appears as if it were eroded from a solid— reads from top to bottom as one continuous liquid frame.
The tower represents a line of research in high-rise construction that explores a fluid architectural expression consistent with engineering for the entire height of the structure. The emphasis is on expressing the dynamism of the structure in an integrated whole that avoids the frequent typology of a tower resting on a base.
Lepine points out that while the architects have worked to express the structure and its beauty within a tall, slender tower, the structure itself is “purposeful” in that it is rigid, stiff, and hurricane resistant. It's not a diagrid structure—but its curving lines allow a diagonal bracketing action. “We had this idea of a fluidity that is both structural and architectural,” Lepine says.
Instead of simply cladding a steel frame, the architects are using an expressive concrete form-work, which remains in place as construction progresses up the tower. This permanent concrete formwork provides the architectural finish. Behind the exoskeleton, the architects have created a folded, faceted, crystallike façade to contrast with the solidity of the exoskeleton. The dependable Miami sun will create plays of light on the glass within the structural frame.
“What you see is literally structure getting thicker and thinner, as needed," Lepine says. "There’s a continuity between the disciplines, between the architecture and engineering, to create that impression.”
Developers Gregg Covin and Louis Birdman of One Thousand Museum Limited commissioned Hadid to do the design, in association with the local architect of record, O’Donnell Dannwolf Partners Architects. There will soon be a notable Hadid structure in Miami.